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Essay #2 Research Proposal

Posted by Marcela V. on

My research question will be “What are the effects of illegal logging, mining, and farming on the indigenous tribes in the Amazon and how can public policy help to address these consequences?”.

This question interests me because it talks about transgressions that are threatening the lives of indigenous communities living in the Amazon. This question will help me explore the current effects of these illegal activities on indigenous tribes living in the Amazon as well as any future repercussions they may suffer if these illegal activities were to continue. Apart from the environmental effects caused, I also plan on writing about the ‘war for survival’ by indigenous tribes against invading loggers, miners, and farmers as another effect. This question will also help me address public policies that help protect indigenous tribes and their lands and those that lack effort in fighting to solve this problem and in enforcing them.

By the end of next week, I should have all of my scholarly sources. I need to do more research on ways the governments can improve on protecting indigenous tribes, their lands, and those who protect the rainforest.

The intended audience for my essay is people who don’t understand the impact logging, mining, and farming has on indigenous communities and/or those who don’t believe these illegal activities affect them. I want to change their perspective and inform my audience on the severe consequences these actions have on native tribes who live in the Amazon. I’ve chosen this model essay called “Effects of Deforestations” by Pachamama Alliance (https://www.pachamama.org/effects-of-deforestation) to model my essay after because I want to structure my essay in a way that my audience won’t have a problem following. I will begin with explaining the causes of illegal logging, mining, and farming, as well as the effects it has on the Amazon which, in turn, affect indigenous communities who depend on the rainforest to survive. I will then follow with writing about the ‘war for survival’ which indigenous warriors have found themselves being forced to fight against invaders (illegal loggers, miners, and farmers) in order to defend their lands. I then plan on finishing off with different plans of action governments can implement to help make a change and solve this issue.


Clifford, Krauss. “In the Amazon, Fires Steal Breath, but Smoke Smells of Money.” The New York Times, 2 Nov. 2019, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/02/world/americas/brazil-amazon-fires-cowboys.html

Darlington, Shasta. “Illegal Mining, ‘Worse Than at Any Other Time,’ Threatens Amazon, Study Finds.” The New York Times, 10 Dec. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/12/10/world/americas/amazon-illegal-mining.html.

Londoño, Ernesto, and Letícia Casado. “Amazon Deforestation in Brazil Rose Sharply on Bolsonaro’s Watch.” The New York Times, 18 Nov. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/11/18/world/americas/brazil-amazon-deforestation.html.

Muñoz Acebes, César, et al. “Rainforest Mafias.” Human Rights Watch, 27 May 2020, www.hrw.org/report/2019/09/17/rainforest-mafias/how-violence-and-impunity-fuel-deforestation-brazils-amazon.

Phillips, Dom. “Goldmining having big impact on indigenous Amazon communities.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 07 Oct. 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/oct/07/goldmining-having-big-impact-on-indigenous-amazon-communities.

“Why I illegally cut down trees in the Amazon rainforest | Interview with a Brazilian illegal logger.” YouTube, uploaded by The Telegraph, 2 Dec. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zITRFwiBE38&t=187s.

AYESHA ABDUL-FATTAAH Essay 2 Research Proposal

Posted by Ayesha Abdul-Fattaah on

QUESTION: How does the local government address homelessness in New York City, and how do their policies affect the homeless population?

I ended up choosing this question with the help of the professor. I knew I wanted to analyze how our local government either criminalizes or uplifts our homeless population. This question allows me to examine how the local government affects our homeless population in terms of criminal justice, education, accessibility to resources, etc.  I have seen homeless people all around the world, from California to China, Philadelphia to the Philippines, New Jersey to Nicaragua, and so on. I personally know people that have been homeless at some points in their life. My mother and father included. We, as a society, have grown so comfortable with this issue, it has become an acceptable injustice. I believe this topic is important as it is our duty as humans to be there for one another and improve the quality of life for people who are struggling. Because of the prevalence of this issue, although my essay will be specific to New York City, I am sure one can apply my findings to other homeless communities throughout the country. Even throughout the world.

My audience are New York Citizens and representatives in our local government. I want to inform fellow members of my community. If one is aware of how the local government is or is not improving the predicament of this vulnerable population, one can better understand what needs to be done and start doing what they can to advocate for any changes necessary. Or even be the change themselves. This can also enable local representatives to be more vigilant when it comes to solving this issue in our city. There needs to be a shift in how we view homeless people, this essay will do just that.  I plan on having a more extensive list of secondary sources, as well as a completed outline with some content in each section, by Friday. This also means I will have completed research for my secondary sources by Friday. I hope to have a completed first draft by next week Friday. 

MODEL ESSAY: https://ny.curbed.com/2020/2/25/21146143/homelessness-new-york-city-how-to-fix 

I feel like this essay is appropriate as a model for my own essay. This is because there is a relevant picture shown which I want to include. Also, the organization of each sector in this essay makes sense and I can envision what titles I will give my own portions. The title of this essay is a question, which I want to replicate for my own essay. This model essay is over 1500 words, is related to my topic, and includes secondary sources. Thus, conforming with the requirements for our model essay.


Hu, Winnie. “’Hostile Architecture’: How Public Spaces Keep the Public Out.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 8 Nov. 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/11/08/nyregion/hostile-architecture-nyc.html. 

“Homelessness & Poverty in New York City.” The Bowery Mission. Rebuilding Lives Since 1879., Oct. 2020, www.bowery.org/homelessness/. 

Hennelly, Bob. “How New York’s Programs and Policies Are Keeping the Homeless on the Street.” CSNY, 8 Mar. 2020, www.cityandstateny.com/articles/policy/housing/how-new-yorks-programs-and-policies-are-keeping-homeless-street.html. 

Ricciulli, Valeria. “Housing, Rental Vouchers, Outreach: Can NYC Fix Its Homeless Crisis?” Curbed NY, Curbed NY, 25 Feb. 2020, ny.curbed.com/2020/2/25/21146143/homelessness-new-york-city-how-to-fix. 


Posted by Fahmida Akter on

Question: What are the social and psychological effects of rape culture on victims and how can our society help to limit these consequences?

Model Essay: “Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments” by Kaitlin A. Chivers-Wilson.
I want my paper to highlight the effects rape has on victimes and how we can help to stop it. Others might forget it after few weeks or months, but the victim suffers from this for the rest of their life. Growing up I was used to seeing parents including mine being overprotective about their girls even though I did not know the reason behind it. As a kid it seemed like a part of our culture to me until I witnessed people getting harassed right in front of me. It is rare for a girl to not get harassed in those societies if she is out all by herself espacially if its night. Parents are constantly in fear for their daughters which leads them into being very controlling. Girls are always required to dress a curtain way, go out with a reliable person, get home earl, etc. Whereas most guys are free to go anywhere, anytime without having to fear about getting raped. Even though it is rare there are boys who were sexually harassed and majority of the time it is by the male population. “He was allegedly raped by his teacher, Alauddin, the principal of the madrasa.” (Md Shahnawaz Khan Chandan) The society protests for it for a short amount of time but the victim suffers from both mental and physical pain for a very long time which includes getting flashbacks, nightmares, depression, guilt, shame, self-blaming, anger, numbness, confusion, shock, disbelief, low self- esteem, physical injury and many more. Our society is very much involved in making it worse for the survivors. Blaming the victims is one of the biggest issues. Rather than acknowledging the crime a rapist commits, many people of our society will blame the female for the way she dresses, or where she was. Which gives the rapists a huge amount of support. Tolerance of sexual harassment, defining manhood as dominant, assuming that men don’t get raped are some of the example of rape culture. Parents needs to teach their kids about sexual harassment from a younger age and also learn to treat their kids equally, which will help them understand each others value.
The audience for my paper is the people who supports human rights. It is for people to understand the value of speaking up and not tolerating any type of offensive jokes and to be able to make a change. From this article, I want people to understand the situation victims go through and help them to try and live a better life. They will also be informed about the actions that they can take to reduce rape in their society.

Timeline: I will need the next week to do further research for my secondary sources to find more information about different ways to support survivors and shut down the supporters of rape culture.

The model essay I have chosen for my research question is “Sexual assault and posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the biological, psychological and sociological factors and treatments” by McGill University. This essay is about the effects of rape which is similar to my essay. It consists many effects that rape causes. However, I have to do more research on how it can be handled and also different ways to decrease the rape rate.

Chivers-Wilson, Kaitlin A. “Sexual Assault and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Review of the Biological, Psychological and Sociological Factors and Treatments.” McGill Journal of Medicine : MJM : an International Forum for the Advancement of Medical Sciences by Students, McGill University, July 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323517/.

Chandan, Md Shahnawaz Khan. “Abuse behind the Closed Doors of Madrasas.” The Daily Star, 18 Apr. 2019, www.thedailystar.net/star-weekend/education/news/abuse-behind-the-closed-doors-madrasas-1731775.

Effects of Sexual Violence.” Resilience, 8 Aug. 2018, www.ourresilience.org/what-you-need-to-know/effects-of-sexual-violence/.

“Rape Culture.” Womens Center, www.marshall.edu/wcenter/sexual-assault/rape-culture/.




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